Children and Iron

Kids require different amounts of iron at various ages and stages. Here’s how much they should be getting as they grow:

Infants who breastfeed tend to get enough iron from their mothers until 4-6 months of age, when iron-fortified cereal is usually introduced (although breastfeeding moms should continue to take prenatal vitamins). Infants who are formula-fed should get iron-fortified formula.

  • Infants ages 7-12 months need 11 milligrams of iron a day. Babies younger than 1 year should be given iron-fortified cereal in addition to breast milk or an infant formula supplemented with iron.
  • Kids ages 1-12 years old need 7-10 milligrams of iron each day.
  • Adolescent boys should be getting 11 milligrams of iron a day and adolescent girls should be getting 15 milligrams. (Adolescence is a time of rapid growth and teen girls need additional iron to replace what they lose monthly when they begin menstruating.)
  • Young athletes who regularly engage in intense exercise tend to lose more iron and may require extra iron in their diets.

What’s Iron Deficiency?
Iron deficiency (when the body’s iron stores are becoming depleted) can be a problem for some kids, particularly toddlers and teens (especially girls who have very heavy periods). In fact, many teenage girls are at risk for iron deficiency — even if they have normal periods — if their diets don’t contain enough iron to offset the loss of iron-containing RBCs during menstrual bleeding. Also, teen athletes lose iron through sweating and other routes during intense exercise.

After 12 months of age, toddlers are at risk for iron deficiency because they no longer drink iron-fortified formula and may not be eating iron-fortified infant cereal or enough other iron-containing foods to make up the difference.

Drinking a lot of cow’s milk (more than 24 fluid ounces [710 milliliters] every day) can also put a toddler at risk of developing iron deficiency. Here’s why:

  • Cow’s milk is low in iron.
  • Kids, especially toddlers, who drink a lot of cow’s milk may be less hungry and less likely to eat iron-rich foods.
  • Milk decreases the absorption of iron and can also irritate the lining of the
  • intestine, causing small amounts of bleeding and the gradual loss of iron in the stool (poop).

Iron deficiency can affect growth and may lead to learning and behavioral problems. And it can progress to iron-deficiency anemia (a decrease in the number of RBCs in the body).

Many people with iron-deficiency anemia don’t have any signs and symptoms because the body’s iron supply is depleted slowly. But as the anemia progresses, some of these symptoms may appear:

  • fatigue and weakness
  • pale skin and mucous membranes
  • rapid heartbeat or a new heart murmur (detected in an exam by a doctor)
  • irritability
  • decreased appetite
  • dizziness or a feeling of being lightheaded

If your child has any of these symptoms, talk to your doctor, who might do a simple blood test to look for iron-deficiency anemia and may prescribe iron supplements. However, because excessive iron intake can also cause health problems, you should never give your child iron supplements without first consulting your doctor.